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Some weird thing it does could be a feature or a bug. C has many implementations. C has many competing compilers. They all work together stressing out the spec, fishing out the loosely defined corners, and pinning down exactly what C is. Code that compiles in one and not another is indicative of a bug in one of them, which gives a nice extra layer of testing to each. By having many implementations, we force C to be well defined, and this is good for the language and its long-term stability. Rustc could stand to have some competition as well, maybe it would get faster!

Rust, on the other hand, has no stable internal ABI. You have to compile and link everything all in one go on the same version of the Rust compiler. The only code which can interact with the rest of the ecosystem is unidiomatic Rust, written at some kind of checkpoint between Rust and the outside world.

The outside world exists, it speaks System-V, and us systems programmers spend a lot of our time talking to it. Cargo is mandatory. The outside world exists, and us systems programmers spend a lot of our time integrating things. Rust refuses to play along.

Memory in C++

Concurrency is generally a bad thing. Serial programs have X problems, and parallel programs have X Y problems, where Y is the amount of parallelism you introduce.

Parallelism in C is a pain in the ass for sure, and this is one reason I find Go much more suitable to those cases. A program which uses poll effectively is going to be simpler, reasonably performant, and have orders of magnitude fewer bugs. Yes, Rust is more safe. C is far from the perfect language - it has many flaws. However, its replacement will be simpler - not more complex.

Consider Go, which has had a lot of success in supplanting C for many problems.

C++ Programming

It does this by specializing on certain classes of programs and addressing them with the simplest solution possible. Wise languages designers start small and stay small. Wise systems programmers extend this philosophy to designing entire systems, and Rust is probably not going to be invited. They are completely different languages. Have a comment on one of my posts?

This post gives an overview of the recent updates to the Writing an OS in Rust blog and the used libraries and tools. I was very busy with finishing my master's thesis, so I didn't have any to implement any notable changes myself. Thanks to contrib…. OOP can help, other things can help, but ultimately there is no simple way to deal with complexity. Which is only surprising if you think that there should exist a reliable process to produce anything people are willing to pay for.

The laws of business are powerful, the laws of nature are more powerful. FAQ: Generic programming allows to create components which are easy to use, widely applicable reusable and efficient. Using them makes your code faster and reduces the amount of errors. Creating them is a "non-process" a poetic description of solving hard problems follows - waking up at night and other things probably questionable from the "business perspective" of which the FAQ is so fond.

Most people can use them, but aren't cut out to create their own - one must like to solve puzzles for that. But these generic components are so generic that you can probably find an off-the-shelf one for your needs. The usability problems are not solved by using off-the-shelf components.

Templates are mostly applicable to containers or smart pointers, which can contain or point to almost anything. That's because in most cases, the benefits such as separate compilation are worth the overhead of dynamic binding which is dwarfed by the complexity of the dispatched operations themselves. Templates are a form of code generation, and hence they don't make code faster or slower compared to code you'd write manually. They do tend to make it larger since the compiler generates the same code many times.

Although there are theoretical ways to avoid this, you find yourself solving someone else's problem. With the "evil" C macros you can at least control when they are expanded. People who like to solve puzzles usually prefer interesting puzzles. With templates, the greatest puzzle is what on Earth the code means even compilers frequently disagree. FAQ: Answering this question is not very helpful because business considerations dominate technical considerations. Specifically, availability of compile time and run time environments, tools, developers is the most important consideration.

People who don't get this are techie weenies endangering their employer's interests. FQA: Answering this question is not very helpful because the real question is what language is best for your specific purposes. The purposes are defined by the business considerations what seems worth doing and by technical considerations what seems possible to do. In particular, your purposes may limit the availability of developers, tools, etc. These constraints are necessary to meet.

Another thing is always true: where you can use a managed environment where the behavior of wrong programs is defined , using it will save a lot of trouble. Unmanaged environments make it very hard to locate faults and impose no limit on the damage done by an undetected fault. People who think there's no point in comparing programming languages, for example because "business considerations dominate technical considerations", are free to start their new projects in COBOL CO mmon B usiness- O riented L anguage.

FAQ: Lots and lots and lots of people and organizations. Which is excellent for business since a lot of developers are available. The few competent developers will spend much of their time dealing with problems created by the language instead of the original problems and a subset of these developers will not even notice. However, the design of the language makes it notoriously hard to produce such tools - a problem motivation can't quite remedy.

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Don't just look at small examples, try it on large programs especially ones using cutting-edge template libraries. FAQ: In months you can become proficient, in 3 years you are a local mentor. Changing the way you think and what you consider "good" is hard. FQA: In months you can become as proficient as it gets.

Moving from C to C++: Discussing Programming Problems, Why They Exist an

Hint: as experienced people might expect , there's an unexpected implicit type conversion involved. While some people are better at learning than others, it is also true that some languages are easier to learn and use than others. For example, does compilation time really cost nothing is development time that cheap, are there compilation servers with GHz CPUs around? Is run time really priceless don't user keystrokes limit out speed, how much data are we processing anyway?

For example, encapsulation is supposed to hide the implementation details from the user of a class. FAQ: Here are a few:. Dynamic binding is central to any language since otherwise old code can't call new code, making code reuse very hard. With OO, old code can call new code - more reuse. Even if the source code for the old code is not available.

Dynamic binding - old code calling new code - exists outside of OO. There are countless examples on any scale, ranging from the C qsort function to operating systems, which run programs written long after the code of those systems. The special thing in OO is that, well, it works with objects. In the case of dynamic binding, this means that not only does old code call new code - it also passes the state encapsulated in the object receiving the method call needed for this new code to work.

This also happens outside of OO, but OO is an excellent unifying framework for dealing with this kind of thing. Especially if you have a good OO environment. The omission of facts in the FAQ is much more typical than the technical inaccuracy. Specifically, there's a difference between theory and practice when it comes to old code not available in source form calling new code.

FAQ: Almost. FQA: The pair of words "almost compatible" is almost meaningless - for many technical purposes, compatibility is a binary thing.

However, this is not a real problem, since you can compile C code with a C compiler. You can call C code from virtually any popular language because most of today's environments are based on C, making it both easy and beneficial to support this. Many platforms provide ways for this to work.

Why Modern C++ Still Isn't As Safe As Memory-Safe Languages Like Rust and Swift - Slashdot

If you are willing to sacrifice performance to gain stability, a managed environment might suit your needs. If you want to improve the stability of your programs without sacrificing neither development time nor run time, you probably can't. The FAQ mentions twice that it was "adopted by unanimous vote". The important thing about standardization, however, is the practical implications.

Let's examine them.

The most frequent source of problems is static binding - figuring out what function calls should be generated from a given statement.